Did you know...?
- Digital violations
- Hate speech
- Blackmail, revenge porn and creep shots
- Talk to someone!
- Get rid of it! Get help!
- How to counteract unwanted occurrences?
- Fake dating profiles online
- Large numbers of young people experience digital violence in relationships
- “Jesus Christ! She’s a girl!”
- Jealous ex-boyfriend took revenge
- Contact information gone astray
- - I can't take it any more
- Featured on a porn site
- Police warning - naked pictures of girls being shared online
- Pupils filmed fighting
- Explosion in blackmail
- Muslim hate speech flourishes online
- Many examples of bullying or other unwanted occurrences with serious consequences can be found in Norwegian and foreign online newspapers. In some cases it may have started out relatively innocuously. - Find examples of unwanted occurrences online in the media. - What happened in the different cases and what action was taken?
- Divide into groups and discuss how you want to behave towards each other online. - Can you come up with a definition of bullying? - Should you tolerate more in digital media than elsewhere? - And is there any reason for why you should be able to behave differently online than elsewhere? Why/why not? - Where is the boundary between freedom of speech and violations? - Can you agree on this in the class? - Are you aware of any examples of hidden bullying? - Discuss what actions can be taken to prevent unwanted occurrences online or to reduce cyber bullying. - Ask the student council to take up the issue so that everyone at school shares a common position and follows the same rules.
- Some schools have chosen to solve the challenges associated with unwanted online occurrences by prohibiting the use of mobile phones and tablets during school hours. - What do you think? What are the advantages/disadvantages of this? - What other options are available to schools? - Could such a ban have negative consequences that the school management might not have foreseen? - How should schools potentially deal with this otherwise?
- Some people claim that digital tools have made it easier to destroy, harass or bully others. - What do you think? - Are there things you could have done and said online, that you would never have done to someone else? If so, what? - What can YOU do you avoid or counteract unwanted occurrences online?
- Think back to all the messages and images you have sent and received. - Could any of these have insulted others and if so, how? - Have you seen cases online where you think that someone has crossed the line in the way they have treated another person (by making comments, posting pictures, etc.)? - Did you do anything about it? Why/why not? If so, what? - What can you do you avoid or counteract unwanted digital occurrences? - Have you ever experienced anything unpleasant via digital tools? What did you do to resolve the situation? What might you have done different?
According to the Norwegian Education Act, all pupils have the right to a good physical and psychosocial environment that promotes health, well-being and learning. This means that the school is responsible for ensuring that all pupils are safe when at school and that they are not subjected to either physical or psychological bullying (see Chapter 9a).
Photographs of a person shall not be reproduced or publicly exhibited without the consent of the subject of the picture, except when
a) the picture is of current or general interest,
b) the picture of the person is less important than the main contents of the picture,
c) the subject of the picture is a group assembled for a meeting, an outdoor procession or situations or events of general interest,
The term of protection shall apply during the lifetime of the subject of the picture and for 15 years after the expiry of the year in which the subject died.
The Norwegian General Civil Penal Code contains a number of provisions which apply to online harassment. Some of the most important provisions are as follows:
Section 135a offensive expressions:
Any person who wilfully or through gross negligence publicly utters a discriminatory or hateful expression shall be liable to fines or imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years. The use of symbols shall also be deemed to be an expression. Any person whom aids and abets such an offence shall be liable to the same penalty. A discriminatory or hateful expression here means threatening or insulting anyone, or inciting hatred or persecution of or contempt for anyone because of his or her:
a) skin colour or national or ethnic origin
b) religion or life stance
c) homosexuality, lifestyle or orientation
Section 190a identity theft (facerape):
A fine or up to 2 years imprisonment will be imposed on any person who unjustifiably takes possession of another person's identity documents or who acts under another person's identity or an identity that is easy to confuse with another person's identity, with intent:
a) to obtain an unlawful gain for him or herself or another, or
b) to inflict loss or disadvantage on another.
Complicity is punishable in the same manner.
Section 227 threats:
Any person who by word or deed threatens to commit a criminal act that is subject to a more severe penalty than detention for one year or imprisonment for six months, under such circumstances that the threat is likely to cause serious fear, or who aids and abets such threat shall be liable to fines or imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years.
Section 246 defamation:
Any person who by word or deed unlawfully defames another person, or who aids and abets thereto, shall be liable to fines or imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months.
Section 390 privacy violations:
Any person who violates another person's privacy by giving public information about personal or domestic relations shall be liable to fines or imprisonment for a term not exceeding three months.
Section 390a frightening or inconsiderate behaviour (bullying):
Any person who by frightening or annoying behaviour or other inconsiderate conduct violates another person's right to be left in peace, or who aids and abets thereto, shall be liable to fines or imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years.
Mobiles, websites and apps make it easy for us to stay in touch with our friends and family. Funny and weird situations can be shared, questions can be answered by known or unknown people, anonymous or not. But what about when the pictures you send to your boyfriend or girlfriend show up on other people’s mobiles instead? How should you react when someone uses information about you in a way you hadn’t anticipated or been asked about? What do you do when a picture of your friend gets plenty of comments about how ugly she is?