Did you know...?
- Digital violations
- Talk to someone!
- Get rid of it! Get help!
- How to counteract unwanted occurrences?
- Hate speech
- Contacted by unknown adults
- Pupil reported to the police for bullying a teacher
- Pupils filmed fighting
- - I can't take it any more
- Extensive bullying of pupils on ask.fm
- Online blackmail
- Some pupils are being bullied by other pupils at school. This bullying may be happening via the internet, mobile phone bullying or face to face. - How can each pupil in your class help to eradicate bullying in your school? - Should you tolerate more in digital media than elsewhere? - And is there any reason why a person should be able to behave differently in social media than elsewhere? Why/why not? - Have you seen examples of hidden bullying? What were they? - Draw up suggestions for rules on how people should behave towards each other, including behaviour when online or using a mobile phone. Also come up with suggestions on how to counteract undesirable online events. - Ask the student council to take up the issue so that everyone at school shares a common position and follows the same rules.
- Freedom of expression is a basic constitutional right in Norway (read under the theme Social media on the web). - Does freedom of expression mean that you can say and write what you want about others? - What is the difference between freedom of expression and writing discriminatory things about others? Where are the actual boundaries?
- A number of schools have banned the use of mobiles during school hours. - What do you think about this? Is this a good way of solving the problem? Why/why not? - Are there other ways to solve the problem? What were they?
- Offensive comments are posted on many popular blogs. Some people seem to think that if you post things about yourself online you have to tolerate offensive feedback. - What do you think about this? - Is it more acceptable to write negative comments about others if they don't know you? Or if they post something you disagree with? Where are the boundaries?
- Some people claim that digital tools have made it easier to wreck, harass or bully others. - What do you think? - Do you feel tougher using your keyboard rather than talking to someone face to face? Why/why not? - Is there a difference between bullying and other forms of harassment? - Have you or someone you know been bullied through digital devices such as mobiles or otherwise? Or have they had other unpleasant experiences? What happened? Did you tell an adult?
- Many people experience negative comments or unpleasant incidents online. - If you have a bad experience online, what would you do? Would you keep it to yourself or would you talk to someone about it? - Are there types of bullying that are not so easy for adults to notice? What are they? - How would you feel if you saw pictures on Facebook from a birthday party which everyone in your class had been invited to except you? - Have you ever seen examples of such hidden bullying? - How can you help to prevent such incidents? What responsibility do you have?
According to the Norwegian Education Act, all pupils have the right to a good physical and psychosocial environment that promotes health, well-being and learning. This means that the school is responsible for ensuring that all pupils are safe when at school and that they are not subjected to either physical or psychological bullying (see Chapter 9a).
Photographs of a person shall not be reproduced or publicly exhibited without the consent of the subject of the picture, except when
a) the picture is of current or general interest,
b) the picture of the person is less important than the main contents of the picture,
c) the subject of the picture is a group assembled for a meeting, an outdoor procession or situations or events of general interest,
The term of protection shall apply during the lifetime of the subject of the picture and for 15 years after the expiry of the year in which the subject died.
The Norwegian General Civil Penal Code contains a number of provisions which apply to online harassment. Some of the most important provisions are as follows:
Section 135a offensive expressions:
Any person who wilfully or through gross negligence publicly utters a discriminatory or hateful expression shall be liable to fines or imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years. The use of symbols shall also be deemed to be an expression. Any person whom aids and abets such an offence shall be liable to the same penalty. A discriminatory or hateful expression here means threatening or insulting anyone, or inciting hatred or persecution of or contempt for anyone because of his or her:
a) skin colour or national or ethnic origin
b) religion or life stance
c) homosexuality, lifestyle or orientation
Section 190a identity theft (facerape):
A fine or up to 2 years imprisonment will be imposed on any person who unjustifiably takes possession of another person's identity documents or who acts under another person's identity or an identity that is easy to confuse with another person's identity, with intent:
a) to obtain an unlawful gain for him or herself or another, or
b) to inflict loss or disadvantage on another.
Complicity is punishable in the same manner.
Section 227 threats:
Any person who by word or deed threatens to commit a criminal act that is subject to a more severe penalty than detention for one year or imprisonment for six months, under such circumstances that the threat is likely to cause serious fear, or who aids and abets such threat shall be liable to fines or imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years.
Section 246 defamation:
Any person who by word or deed unlawfully defames another person, or who aids and abets thereto, shall be liable to fines or imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months.
Section 390 privacy violations:
Any person who violates another person's privacy by giving public information about personal or domestic relations shall be liable to fines or imprisonment for a term not exceeding three months.
Section 390a frightening or inconsiderate behaviour (bullying):
Any person who by frightening or annoying behaviour or other inconsiderate conduct violates another person's right to be left in peace, or who aids and abets thereto, shall be liable to fines or imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years.
Mobiles, the Internet and apps make it easy for us to keep in touch with friends and share pictures, videos and maybe even secrets. Funny and weird situations can be shared, questions can be answered by known or unknown people. But what about if the pictures you send to your friend show up on other people's mobiles instead? How should you react when someone uses information about you in a way you hadn't anticipated or been asked about? What do you do when a picture of your friend gets comments about how ugly she is?